Friday, May 31, 2019
EL MERCADOThe Mexican Mercado is a historical, soci satisfactory, and wonderful experience. I believe it says a lot about Mexicos agriculture and how they have kept some of the ways of there ancestors. The Mercado is a thing that should be highly respected. Many things are related to the Mercado like bargaining, communicating, making friends, shopping, and agriculture. That just there describes Mexicos history and present. In the US I believe that people usually dont like to socialize as much as people in Mexico than people in the US. That is half of the reason people in Mexico go to the Market. People in Mexico like to negotiate prices and people in the US wait to be in more of a hurry. The US and Mexico have supermercados which are pretty similar to each new(prenominal) because they sell a lot of the selfsame(prenominal) things. The traditional Mercado is an open-air market, which is similar to some of the farmers markets that the US has. Except people in Mexico have bigger m arkets and they have a bigger variety of stuff. They arent as popular in the U.S. because of the differences in the history of the cultures. I think a lot of people would like to bring open-air markets to the US.Some advantages of the Mercado is being able to visit and get to know more people. There are also many shops with many varieties of things to choose from. Stores for everyone, they have flower shops, craft markets and many other shops. A disadvantage I would think is that it would of all time be crowded. I consider this a disadvantage, but there are some people that wouldnt. Im not sure how fresh the fruits would be either, because you dont know how long they have been sitting there. Some advantages for the U.S. markets would be having the out-of-date prints on the things you buy and knowing that your fruit is fresh. increase you have a better chance of getting a refund. Some disadvantages are not being able to negotiate with people for lower prices. In the US the grocery s hopping isnt as much about visiting and talking, but getting your shopping done quickly because people are always in a hurry. The Mercado was started by the Aztecs, this cultural activity is historical and a wonderful experience.
Thursday, May 30, 2019
The city is an elegant maneuver to live. It calls to the people from the inferior village intent. The well led life followed by the city people offers many opportunities compared to the hopelessness of village surroundings. It offers hope, the chance to be independent, the chance of a job. In the story veronica by Adewale Maja-Pearce, Okek the constantly lasting friend of Veronica is drawn by the attraction of the city for the opportunities he sees for himself. Veronica on the other hand does not desire to turn over their decomposing village for the city. She decides this for a number of reasons.One of the reasons why Veronica decides not to go to the city is due to her lack of education. She feels that the city has nothing to offer her and her place is the village. She says,What will I do when I get there, I have no qualifications not even a standard sixShe is aware that she needs qualifications to watch over in the city and without them, she sees no point in going. Another re ason associated with this is to do with Veronicas expectations. If Veronicas expectations were not so low, she may have gone to the city with Okek. Veronica says,They are my family that is enough This line is an example of Veronicas low expectations. She feels her family is enough and she needs nothing else. Another example of Veronicas low expectations is when Okek comes back after ten years to rise Veronica with a child a husband. Another example is,God has blessed us with a son. Is that not e...
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Compare and contrast the way the poets show the problems affecting theculture they are writing about in Nothings Changed and Blessing.Tatamkhulu Afrika, author of Nothings Changed has written aprobably autobiographical poem, where he is revisiting scenes of hischildhood a reflective poem, that is very emotional. The poem set inSouth Africa, illustrates a society where rich and poor are divided.He remembers when he was a boy and the laws, enforced by police thatseparated the whites from the blacks. He has come hindquarters to Cape Townand seen that Nothings changed in the apartheid.Imtiaz Dharker author of Blessing has written a descriptive poem,set in a hot country, where thither is a shortage of water, as told inthe opening lines of the poem where the human skin is compared to aseedpod, drying out till it cracks. The poem is set in India, in avillage where there is poverty. We know that this because firstlythere is a shortage of water, and secondly they live in huts. Consider with al the last line, their small bones. This could mean that there isalso a shortage of food or it can also emphasis the size of the smallchildren. In line 18, when it says and naked children, this alsoshows us that they arouse no clothes or it can emphasise the need ofwater to wash.Tatamkhulu Afrika shows us a society divided between the blacks andthe whites. He also shows the balance between their cultures.District Six is the name of a poor area of Cape Town. This area wasbulldozed as a slum in 1966, but never properly rebuilt. Althoughthere is no sign there, the poet can feel that this is where he isbut my feet know, and my manpower. Similarly the up-market inn (brashwith glass and the bright sign, flaring like a flag, which showsits name) is meant for the white customers only. The whites only innis elegant, with linen tablecloths and a single rose on each table.It is contrasted with the fast food working mans cafe which sellsthe local snack (bunny chows). There is no tablecloth, just aplastic top, and there is nowhere to wash ones hands after eatingwipe your fingers on your jeans. This is all totally different fromthe poem written by Imtiaz Dharker, in which everyone as a communityruns for the water and everyone has a right to the water, (every manwoman child for streets around).There are many religious beliefs in Blessing, as you can seestraight away from the title, which emphasises how devoted the water is
The Texture of the Sixth Poem of Song of Myself   In number six of Whitmans poetic serial publication Song of Myself, it seems that he is trying to convey the point that to die is not what people make it out to be. Whitman throughout many of the poems in this series, describes death as lucky and beneficial. He also explains how death leads to the beginning of life in this poem. The tone at the very beginning of this poem seems a bit youthful. oddly when the question What is grass? is posed to him by a child. This opening line gives you a great mental picture of a child about the years of five or six, walking up and asking innocently a question that you cannot answer. By using the line, fetching it to me with full/ hands Whitman gives you that image veracious from the beginning. From there he goes into this sort of naïve tone, guessing what grass means. By doing so he shows himself to be mortal and not all-knowing.   During this time in the poem, he gives beautiful me taphorical imagery, comparing the grass to other things and illustrating a better idea of what the grass is. Also during this speculation period, the wording becomes denser, as the ideas become complex. Whitman moves from the single-lined callow voice, into the adult stage of the poem. Here, he becomes surer of what the grass is and does less guessing. Around line 101, Whitman starts toward the turning point in the essay, describing the death aspect of the grass. Words like unconsolable change the mood of the poem to a slower, sadder state. At line 110, the poem takes a sudden change and reads much quicker. It changes into a kind of argument and Whitman speaks more than affirmatively. Now it seems as if he has been enlightened and understands what the grass is. The feeling of death changes to life and darkness changes to light.   In a subtle way, he gives the reader a feeling of lightness and life, because in the last four lines he begins all of the lines with As and as you read it you get that choral Hallelujah feeling. Whitman shows you the light. He tells you why death is a good thing. There is no more fear. To die is different from what any one supposed, and/luckier.
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
hyaloplasm the Movie and The Lathe of enlightenmentThe solid ground is not always what you think it is. Things modification or can appear to be different than what you originally thought them to be. So argon the worlds in the Matrix and the novel The Lathe of Heaven. What you thought you knew about your tone just went out the window. There ar several similarities between the novel and the movie, and there are many trends in the movies and novels societies that are portrayed in our order as well. Also, each proves LeGuins hypothesis on science metaphor. The Lathe of Heaven and The Matrix have many similarities. Both utilize the number three by providing main(prenominal) characters in sets of three. Also, The Matrix brings an even more(prenominal) blatant example of this by naming one of the main characters Trinity. In addition, they both portray our world as something that is artificial made up by others who do not have the best intentions. The Matrix is simply a constantly changing computer course only one of the hundreds we are unmindful(predicate) of. The matrices, which, while maintained by the Agents, run on their own, are designed to create a utopia. In the Lathe of Heaven, Dr. Haber controls Georges dreams, and therefore, the future, by using the augmenter and the power of suggestion. Both worlds are created and altered with everyone being oblivious, except the three main characters. In each story there is a sort that is trying to save the real world that we live in, while there are people trying to create the world that they see fit. Ursula LeGuin proposed a theory that shows what science fiction is and how it works. She believes that science fiction is what we can not see. Science fiction is made up of ... ...eat stories. I was intrigued by the Lathe of Heaven and its psychological story. The Matrix is and will go down as one of the greatest movies of all time. Not just for its special effects, but for the philosophical meaning behind it. To enquiry what we know and to wonder, is what we have real? unfeignedly makes you want to take that red pill and find out for your self. The Lathe of Heaven really touches base on the vagary that dreams can be a watch of reality. I know I have had dreams were I can not tell the difference between a dream and reality. Both were well indite and are going to continue to have an impact on their respected genres of art. Works Cited The Matrix. Dir. The Wachoswki Brothers. With Keanu Reeves, and Laurence Fishburn. Warner Bros, 2001 LeGuin, Ursula. The Lathe of Heaven. HarperCollins Publishers, 2000 Matrix the Movie and The Lathe of Heaven Essay -- Film Compare ContrasMatrix the Movie and The Lathe of HeavenThe world is not always what you think it is. Things change or can appear to be different than what you originally thought them to be. So are the worlds in the Matrix and the novel The Lathe of Heaven. What you thought you knew about your life just went out the wi ndow. There are several similarities between the novel and the movie, and there are many trends in the movies and novels societies that are portrayed in our society as well. Also, each proves LeGuins theory on science fiction. The Lathe of Heaven and The Matrix have many similarities. Both utilize the number three by providing main characters in sets of three. Also, The Matrix brings an even more blatant example of this by naming one of the main characters Trinity. In addition, they both portray our world as something that is artificial made up by others who do not have the best intentions. The Matrix is simply a constantly changing computer program only one of the hundreds we are unaware of. The matrices, which, while maintained by the Agents, run on their own, are designed to create a utopia. In the Lathe of Heaven, Dr. Haber controls Georges dreams, and therefore, the future, by using the augmenter and the power of suggestion. Both worlds are created and altered with everyone bei ng oblivious, except the three main characters. In each story there is a group that is trying to save the real world that we live in, while there are people trying to create the world that they see fit. Ursula LeGuin proposed a theory that shows what science fiction is and how it works. She believes that science fiction is what we can not see. Science fiction is made up of ... ...eat stories. I was intrigued by the Lathe of Heaven and its psychological story. The Matrix is and will go down as one of the greatest movies of all time. Not just for its special effects, but for the philosophical meaning behind it. To question what we know and to wonder, is what we have real? Really makes you want to take that red pill and find out for your self. The Lathe of Heaven really touches base on the idea that dreams can be a preview of reality. I know I have had dreams were I can not tell the difference between a dream and reality. Both were well written and are going to continue to have an imp act on their respected genres of art. Works Cited The Matrix. Dir. The Wachoswki Brothers. With Keanu Reeves, and Laurence Fishburn. Warner Bros, 2001 LeGuin, Ursula. The Lathe of Heaven. HarperCollins Publishers, 2000
Matrix the Movie and The Lathe of heavenThe world is non always what you think it is. Things change or keep appear to be different than what you sooner thought them to be. So argon the worlds in the Matrix and the novel The Lathe of nirvana. What you thought you knew ab out your life just went out the window. There are several similarities among the novel and the movie, and there are some(prenominal) trends in the movies and novels societies that are portrayed in our society as well. Also, each proves LeGuins theory on science fiction. The Lathe of Heaven and The Matrix have many similarities. some(prenominal) utilize the number three by providing briny characters in sets of three. Also, The Matrix brings an even more blatant exercise of this by naming one of the main characters Trinity. In addition, they both portray our world as something that is artificial made up by others who do non have the best intentions. The Matrix is patently a constantly changing computer progra m only one of the hundreds we are unaware of. The matrices, which, turn maintained by the Agents, run on their own, are designed to create a utopia. In the Lathe of Heaven, Dr. Haber controls Georges dreams, and therefore, the future, by using the augmenter and the power of suggestion. Both worlds are created and altered with everyone being oblivious, except the three main characters. In each story there is a group that is hard to save the real world that we live in, while there are people trying to create the world that they see fit. Ursula LeGuin proposed a theory that shows what science fiction is and how it works. She believes that science fiction is what we can not see. Science fiction is made up of ... ...eat stories. I was intrigued by the Lathe of Heaven and its psychological story. The Matrix is and will go down as one of the greatest movies of all time. Not just for its specific effects, but for the philosophical meaning behind it. To question what we cognise and to wonder, is what we have real? Really makes you want to dish out that red pill and find out for your self. The Lathe of Heaven really touches base on the idea that dreams can be a preview of reality. I know I have had dreams were I can not tell the difference between a dream and reality. Both were well written and are handout to continue to have an impact on their respected genres of art. Works Cited The Matrix. Dir. The Wachoswki Brothers. With Keanu Reeves, and Laurence Fishburn. Warner Bros, 2001 LeGuin, Ursula. The Lathe of Heaven. HarperCollins Publishers, 2000 Matrix the Movie and The Lathe of Heaven Essay -- Film Compare ContrasMatrix the Movie and The Lathe of HeavenThe world is not always what you think it is. Things change or can appear to be different than what you originally thought them to be. So are the worlds in the Matrix and the novel The Lathe of Heaven. What you thought you knew about your life just went out the window. There are several similar ities between the novel and the movie, and there are many trends in the movies and novels societies that are portrayed in our society as well. Also, each proves LeGuins theory on science fiction. The Lathe of Heaven and The Matrix have many similarities. Both utilize the number three by providing main characters in sets of three. Also, The Matrix brings an even more blatant example of this by naming one of the main characters Trinity. In addition, they both portray our world as something that is artificial made up by others who do not have the best intentions. The Matrix is simply a constantly changing computer program only one of the hundreds we are unaware of. The matrices, which, while maintained by the Agents, run on their own, are designed to create a utopia. In the Lathe of Heaven, Dr. Haber controls Georges dreams, and therefore, the future, by using the augmenter and the power of suggestion. Both worlds are created and altered with everyone being oblivious, except the three main characters. In each story there is a group that is trying to save the real world that we live in, while there are people trying to create the world that they see fit. Ursula LeGuin proposed a theory that shows what science fiction is and how it works. She believes that science fiction is what we can not see. Science fiction is made up of ... ...eat stories. I was intrigued by the Lathe of Heaven and its psychological story. The Matrix is and will go down as one of the greatest movies of all time. Not just for its special effects, but for the philosophical meaning behind it. To question what we know and to wonder, is what we have real? Really makes you want to take that red pill and find out for your self. The Lathe of Heaven really touches base on the idea that dreams can be a preview of reality. I know I have had dreams were I can not tell the difference between a dream and reality. Both were well written and are going to continue to have an impact on their respected genres o f art. Works Cited The Matrix. Dir. The Wachoswki Brothers. With Keanu Reeves, and Laurence Fishburn. Warner Bros, 2001 LeGuin, Ursula. The Lathe of Heaven. HarperCollins Publishers, 2000
Monday, May 27, 2019
readingal lead An Moslem Perspective Dr. Walid Ahmad Masadah, De business officement of Muslim Studies, College of Shariah and Muslim Studies,Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan And Dr. Ali Mohammad Jubran, De set forthment of Moslem Studies, College of Shariah and Muslim Studies,Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan ABSTRACT This paper get ines to identify the of import features of educational attractorship from an Muslim perspective. It is an drive to contri only ife to the extendment and discernment of educational leadinghip in Moslem institutions.This get out give a better rendering of compositional strong suit and provide acquire aboutlines for attracters of Moslem educational institutions in order to succeed their Islamic managerial objectives successfully. This paper discusses the Islamic thought on educational attractionship. It managed to highlight both earlyish and contemporary ideas on Islamic lead. For that, ideas of Ibn Taymiya, Al-Farabi, Al-Maward i, Al-Ghazali and Ibn Khaldoun as surface as ideas of some contemporary scholars of educational attractions were examine.It also highlighted the main purposes of educational lead in Islam much(prenominal) as the visionary leader, the servant leader, the leader as a guide, the influential leader and the educative leader as well as styles of educational lead in Islam such as uniting drawing cardship, Collaborative Leadership, Shuratic or Consultative Leadership and Supportive Leadership. The definition of educational leadership in Islam was analyzed at the fount of the paper. Finall(a)y, the paper came up with few suggestions and recommendations for the Muslim educational leaders, managers and researchers.Keywords educational leadership, roles of educational leadership, styles of educational leadership Introduction This research discusses the main features of educational leadership from an Islamic perspective. It allow be an attempt to contribute to the development and sym pathizeing of educational leadership in Islamic educational institutions. This get out give a better understanding of organizational effectiveness and provide guidelines for principals of Islamic schools in order to get their Islamic educational objectives successfully. 1Aimes of the Research This research aimes to identify the Islamic pretense of educational leadership. It highlights both early and contemporary ideas on Islamic leadership. It also highlights the main roles and styles of educational leadership in Islam. The definition of leadership in Islam is analyzed at the beginning of the research. Leadership from an Islamic Perspective An Introduction Leadership in Islam is a responsibility and a trust that leaders feel when they plow with their followers. It is considered as a part of reverenceping Allah (s. . t). Leadership in Islam is to serve the members of the organization, the friendship and the confederation at large, that is, conducting and guiding tribe to wha t is good in this world and the Hereafter. Understanding leadership from an Islamic perspective is an of import urgency today. The Muslim Ummah should sire its own views and theories of whatever is necessary for Muslims. Islamic resources and history be rich in ideas and good examples, that may be employ as the formations for the Islamic theoretical framework of leadership and other subjects.Muslims also ar beginning to invest heavily in education and cognition management, and the results atomic number 18 tangible (Beekun and Badawi, 1999 viii). This requires great efforts towards understanding the issue of education and other related subjects. In addition, the ethical and moral system that is considered as the core of the Islamic framework of leadership is becoming an emphasis of the western perspective of the return (Gardner, 1990 67- 80 Paine 1997 3 Spitzer, 2000 203- 244 Murphy and Shipman, 2000 99 Sergiovanni, 2001 103).This further fuels the need for investigating the topic of leadership more(prenominal) precisely from an Islamic perspective. 2 Because of the limited scholarly development on leadership from an Islamic perspective, the researchers provide often refer instantaneously to the Qur? anic verses and the traditions of the Prophet as the primary sources of the Islamic thought. In addition, contributions of the early and contemporary Muslim scholars in the come to field result be examined. The objective of this investigation is an attempt to understand the term of leadership more precisely and try to come up with a framework for Islamic leadership.Definition of Leadership in Islam first Muslim scholars used words such as wilaya, Imamah and Khilafah to mean leadership. Ibn Taymiya (661-728 AH) defined wilaya as maintaining the religion of the the great unwashed such that if it is lost, they will be the losers, and maintaining a animateness that will countenance people to understand their religion. (1992 11). Al-Mawardi (957-1058 ) looked at Imamah in the context of the guarding of the religion and bread and butter. It is an obligatory system for all Muslims because without it, people will be living in darkness and religion will not be guarded. (quoted in Basbous 1988 47 and al-Wakeel 1988 22). On this matter Allah (s. w. t) has verbalise in the Qur? an virtually Prophet Abraham (a. s) And rally that Abraham (a. s. ) was tried by his Lord with certain commands, which he put to deathed, He express I will make thee an Imam to the people. (Qur? an 2 124). In his commentary on this verse, Ali (1985) explained that Imam means the primary sense of being foremost hence it may mean leader in religion or leader in congregational prayer or model, pattern and example. (p. 50). Thitherfore, cardinal of the meanings of Imamah is leadership. consort to Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406 AC), Khilafa means to assist people to live in accordance with the Islamic rules as a guidance for their interests in this world and in the Hereafter. It is the vicegerent duty on behalf of Allah (s. w. t) to guard the religion and to manage life. (Ibn Khaldun, 1979 179). With regard to the term leadership, the Arabic dictionary of Al-Mo? clutter Al-Waseet defined to lead? as to head a group while being in drift (Mustafa et al. 1989 765). Therefore, leaders al dashs come in front of their members and organization, and are the first.The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language in the same way of life defined to lead as to guide or betoken in a course, or to go first as a guide. (Morris, 1981 719). Leadership in Islam jibe to some writers could be the bridge used by some people to influence the members? attitudes and behaviors in order to be adequate to procure the objectives of the organization (Adlouni and Sweidan 2000 18). According to this definition, the influential role of the leadership is the most outstanding adept as leaders can enable people to do the right labor. Some scholars tend to c onnect the term of leadership with the importance of having a vision.They believe that good leadership is one that can come up with a readable vision and thus be able to transfer such vision to the members. For example, Murad Khurram defined leadership as the ability to see beyond assumed boundaries, and to come up with solutions or paths that few can visualize. The leader mustiness indeed project this vision for every one to see and pursue (quoted in Beekun and Badawi. 1999 5- 6). 4 Leadership could be defined as the figure out of lamentable people in a planned acquition by motivating them to act through noncompulsive means (al-Talib, 1992 50).This definition emphasise the leader? s role in moving his or her organization? s members towards the operation of the common objectives. This means that leaders should not only direct people to do the job but to help them move by motivating them in a way that will encourage them to adjudge a productive attitude towards work. In anot her way, leadership could also be defined as the art of influencing and directing others towards a common objective in a way that leaders will gain their members? trust, respect, cooperation and sincere obedience (Basbous 1988 28).It should be noted here that such definitions consider leadership as an art that requires some(prenominal) skills in understanding others and dealing with them wisely. It emphasizes both the direction and influential roles of leadership. Similarly, Beekun and Badawi have defined leadership as the process of directing and influencing organization members so that they will take ownership of organizational activities and programs (1999 132). Al-Talib (1992) once again stressing that leadership is a process of influencing others (p. 50).However, leadership in Islam has a unique role that is guiding people to what is good in this world and the Hereafter. This means that leadership does not only deal with the mere objectives of the organization in the context of its daily work. The objectives of either organization must be connected with the religion? s objectives. Therefore, leadership has a new dimension which is the connection with the religion and the Creator. In this way, a Muslim leader will understand that his or her role is to guide people, not only to achieve the mission of the organization, but also to raise them higher than that and connect them with the highest goal of existence as a human beings being. It should be fool to everybody that worshipping Allah (s. w. t) is the main goal for all Muslims. Leadership in this way, should be understood as a kind of worship (al-Nahwi, 1999 36). Therefore, leadership is a guiding process more than a directing one. Leadership in this context could be the process of guiding and influencing the members of the organization so that they will display initiative and make do for the work that they do as a kind of worship towards achieving the common objectives of the organization.By doing so, leaders and members will be able to attain happiness in both worlds. Early Ideas on Islamic Leadership Early Islamic thought has contributed significantly to the field of leadership. Muslim scholars and specialists displace the basis for this science that in turn became the grassroots elements of leadership in the Islamic state and the managing of society? s affairs. Their contributions to humanity in this respect have become a prominent and all important(predicate) element at the present time. One of the earliest scholars who touched upon the topic of leadership was Ibn Taymiyah (661-728 AH).He emphasized in his discussion Assiyasah Ashariyah Fi Islah Arrai Warraiyah The Shariat Politics, the reform of the Islamic government and leadership. Ibn Taymiyah stated the following necessary characteristics for leaders to be able to lead. These are trusdeucerthiness, a strong personal character, to be qualified, to be experienced, adherence to Islamic commands and an ability to ca rry out responsibilities (Ibn Taymiyah 1988 20- 21). He emphasized also some leadership principles to be taken into consideration by government leaders. These are responsibility, trust and Shura (consultation) (Ibid. 17). According to Ibn Taymiyah, 6 Shura is recommended for two reasons. First, it will create familiarity and amicable relations among the state subjects. Second, shura will create positive affable interaction that will improve the state? s performance (Ibid. 17). Ibn Taimiyah further investigated leadership in his scrap throw Risalatul Hisbah WalHukomah Al-Islamiyah Al-Hisbah and the Responsibility of the Islamic Government. He discussed leadership control as a tool to preserve the legacy of the Islamic state and to redirect personal and governmental actions towards the right direction.The leadership control is used to contribute effectively to the developmental process of the state. Later, al-Qalqashandi (756-821 AH) concerned himself with leadership functions, pa rticularly with the offices of civil administration (kuttab). His well organized book Subh Al-Asha Fi Sinat Al-Insha The Night-Blinds Morning is a useful textbook in the field of adminstative secretarial functions. The book contains preparatory office work, procedures, organization, responsibilities, requirements and means of communication between different government circles.Al-Qalqashandi described in detail the characteristics of the executive officer as a leader which includes personal, physical, professional and well-disposed characters (al-Qalqashandi 1963 61- 67). Moreover, al-Qalqashandi developed an organizational structure for the leadership office and explained the responsibilities of each newsboy (Ibid. 101-139). Later, al-Farabi (872-950) concerned himself with proper leadership, a leadership that will be able to establish the virtuous state or the city of excellence? as he called it and will bring happiness to the people.He was also concerned with the characteristi cs 7 of the Muslim leader. Al-Farabi in his book Ara Ahl Al-Madinah Al-Fadilah Opinions of Dwellers of the City of Excellence, pointed out the characteristics of the rightly guided leaders. According to him, they should be intelligent, full of wisdom, possess complementary characters in terms of their physical and mental abilities, ideal and longsighted policy makers (al-Farabi 1985 127-130). He emphasized that a leader and those who are working with him should show excellent behavior in order to achieve the ideal goals and ambitions of the society.Al-Farabi further focused on the importance of having strong relationships among all members of the city of excellence and between all organizations. He argued the members of the city of excellence must be able to cooperate and support each other. All dwellers should aim at achieving happiness for all. Al-Mawardi (957-1058) addressed the leadership system of the government. He looked at the government as a leader of the society and organi zer of its activities. According to al-Mawardi, the leader is fully responsible for the prosperity of the society and ought to manage its various affairs effectively.The contents of his well-organized book, Al-Ahkam Assultaniyah Wal-Wilayat Addiniyah Fil-Idarah Al-Hukoumiyah The Sultanic Rules discusses the leadership system of the government and its fundamentals, and the leadership obligations of the head of state at regional, local and central levels. The book also contains recommendations regarding methods and techniques necessary for organizing government activities throughout different departments and circles. Moreover, alMawardi highlights some principles of leadership such as justice, hierarchy of leadership, qualification, worthiness in employment and specialization (al-Mawardi 1983 20). From a psychological point of view, al-Ghazali (1058-1111) a well-known Islamic scholar focused on studying the behavior of the Muslim leaders. He was concerned with the leadership of the citizens, society and Muslim affairs. In his valuable book in the field of leadership, Attibir Al-Masbouk Fi Naseehat Al-Molouk, Council or Advice for Kings, he outlined the characteristics of a leader from an Islamic perspective. Al-Ghazali provided ten commandments supported by the Sunnah of the Prophet (p. b. u. h. ) and viewpoints of Muslim philosophers that should be taken by the Muslim leaders.Some of these commandments are shura (consultation), avoidance of committing injustice, softness and tenderness as a mode of conduct between authorities and citizens and helping members in solving their problems whether personal or professional (al-Ghazali 1987 22-33). From another angle, Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406) laid emphasis on the social aspects of leadership and organization. His famous book Al-Ibar Wa Diwan Al-Mubtada WalKhabar Fi Ayyam Al-Arab Wal-Barbar Wal-Ajam Waman Asarahum Min Dhawi Assultan Al-Akbar (Al-Moqaddimah) The Introduction is considered as one of the most important books in the field of social science.He emphasized that leadership is an outcome of social interaction between different social groups. Ibn Khaldun believed that the social organization is related to many factors and environmental elements, which affect human behavior and ultimately, will be reflected in the leadership of the society. Ibn Khaldun also stated that the development of the social organization? s structure is related to its cultural scene (Ibn Khaldun 1979 144). Ability to structure an organization is one aspect of leadership.He believes that studying the development of the organization will help to forecast its future potential. This will be through with(p) by 9 combining environmental elements, and as he believed, with both psychological and geographical. It is worth mentioning that the contribution of the above mentioned Muslim scholars remain as the basic pillars for the development of current leadership thought. However, most of these contributions focused on the leadership of the government and state affairs that can be useful for managing institutions in society and in shaping the philosophy of leadership from the Islamic perspective.Yet it remains clear that there is no published work on educational leadership by early Muslim scholars. Contemporary Ideas on Islamic Leadership Although the study of leadership is one of the most important fields of modern time, with the Qur? an and the Sunnah providing us with numerous references for understanding the Islamic approach to leadership, Muslim intellectuals have failed to give it its proper due. In addition to the contributions of the early Muslim scholars in th e field of leadership, there is also the practical application of the Islamic approach to eadership through the Islamic states throughout history. Until today, Muslim intellectuals have been unable to formalize an Islamic theory of leadership. Although there have been many attempts to do so, starting with the intellectual awakening move ment at the beginning of the 20th century, yet no severe or scientific steps were taken until the sixth decade of this century. Till now, most of such attempts were not aimed at formulating an Islamic theory of leadership, but earlier were trying to prove that Islam had sufficient resources to 10 formulate such a theory.Additionally, they also attempted to prove that some of the Western achievements in this field were grow in Islamic principles. such an approach is apologetic in nature, and will not lead to formulating a proper Islamic theory of leadership, even though it is indeed the first step in doing so. A more proper approach would be to examine the Qur? an, Sunnah and Islam? s heritage, and try to deduce a theory of leadership, its objectives, characteristics, roles, styles, dimensions and principles. These attempts that aimed at presenting an Islamic feature of the leadership theory have succeeded in doing so.Some researchers raised the issue of Islamic leadership and tr ied to define it ground on an Islamic point of view. The attempts also have come up with a set of characteristics of Islamic leadership and stated its objectives and goals. In addition, other researchers analyzed some periods of Islamic history starting from the time of Prophet Muhammad (p. b. u. h. ), his caliphs (r. a. ), the Ummayad and Abbasiad periods and others. These analyses aimed at identifying the leadership practices, to be found in Islamic history.Following is a summary of the contemporary related studies that touched the topic of leadership from an Islamic perspective A very important study that touched the topic of leadership was Nitham Al-Hukomah Al-Nabawiyah, The Prophets System of Governance by al-Kittani (1920), who was dissatisfied with the obvious lack of published material on Islamic leadership and administration especially in regard to the Prophet Muhammad (p. b. u. h. ). Al-Kittani? s book is a collection of narrations that recorded some events and behaviors of leadership and administration as practised by Prophet Muhammad (p. . u. h. ). However, these practices were not related in any way to any kind of the leadership system in planetary or in Islam in particular. 11 Muslim scholars have shown the general features of the Islamic leadership. Fazlul Karim (1963) for example has focused on the unique concepts of the Muslim leader. He outlined some leadership concepts as guidelines for leaders to be followed. He explained these concepts when he wrote the following close to the Muslim leader He shall view this world as a temporary resting place for preparation for the everlasting and eternal next world.He shall continuously enterprise to acquire, in his lifetime, as much religious merit by just and honest administration, which must be based upon justice, social equity and efficiency. He shall place himself as a mere servant of the people and a trustee for his subjects, i. e. those below him in command as well as the public in general (qu oted in al-Buraey, 1985 238). Fazlul Karim further elaborated on some other principles of leadership in Islam. Among them are the following A Muslim leader shall love for his subjects what he loves for himself and his immediate family and relatives.He shall keep his door always open for hearing grievances and for redressing of wrongs. He shall use, as a keynote of his administrative policies, justice coupled with mercy. He shall observe the religious duties and rites of others. He shall wisely choose devotional, truthful and sincere men as his ministers and aids and advisors. He shall look after every community with an eye of equality so far as justice is concerned. He shall govern the people under his administrative charge according to the laws of the Qur? an, Sunnah and general rules of equity and justice (Ibid).More recently, Abu Sin (1986 171) emphasized that leadership thought in Islam is based on the Qur? an, Sunnah and the human values that were prevalent at the beginning of Islamic history. Therefore, Muslims have to look at their legislative sources precisely in order to understand the Islamic perspective of leadership. In addition, they could look at leadership practices of the early Muslim state formed by Prophet Muhammad (p. b. u. h. ) and his Pious caliphs (r. a. ). 12 According to many scholars, the comprehensiveness and all encompassing nature of Islamic leadership theory is what distinguishes it from other leadership theories.The striking feature of an Islamic leadership theory is its emphasis on all the relevant variables and factors that affect the leadership cycle or process, inside and outside the organization, as well as its understanding of individual behavior in light of social and cultural forces. It includes an important dimension, that is the ethical and moral factors that have a great effect on leadership behavior in organizations. As for the practical program of an Islamic leadership that would achieve its objectives, Abu Sin (1986 201) stressed the importance of connecting leadership with the Islamic social environment making it bound by society? social values. The concept of shura and elaboration should be applied, and a humane environment that encourages higher productivity should be secured. The economic variable should also be dealt with by providing it for the material needs of the workers. An Islamic leadership is the one that seeks happiness for the individual and society. AlBuraey (1994 17) stated that Islamic leadership assists the individual in attaining happiness in both worlds. Therefore, the function of leadership is to direct human resources properly in order to serve society in achieving happiness.Muslim scholars succeeded in drawing attention towards this important dimension for leadership in Islam. Jabnoun (1994) make the distinction between Islamic and the Western perspectives of leadership by saying that, unlike the common concepts of management, Islam encompasses the dimensions of belief in Allah (s. w. t) and the Hereafter. These added dimensions have innumerable ramifications on the actions and interactions of individuals, organizations and societies. (pp. 1- 2). homogeneous Abu Sin 13 1986) and al-Buraey (1990), Jabnoun (1994) emphasized that ethics play a major role in Islamic perspectives. Although his book was on leadership in general, the writer concentrated on some Qura? nic verses and some of Hadith literture related to the elements of leadership, such as planning, organizing and leading. However, the writer relied on both Islamic and Western sources of management. To emphasize more the ethical dimension of leadership, Abdul-Athim (1994) believes that values and ethics are the most important features of Islamic leadership.Therefore, he concentrated on discussing Islamic values and their influence on the leadership process at its various levels of planning, organizing, implementing, supervising and others. The objective of an Islamic leadership is mainly the worship of Allah (s. w. t) on Earth by applying the Islamic principles in ibadat and muamalat, establishing khilafah and justice. Such objectives were presented by many Muslim writers such as Abu Sin (1986 200). However, such a set of objectives is for every Muslim, which means that the evaluation of achievement of an Islamic leadership is difficult.Furthermore, the higher objective of an Islamic leadership and its proper tools and instruments were presented by al-Ali in his book Al-Idarah Fil-Islam, arrangement in Islam which mentioned that Islam combines trustfulness and good deeds (al-Ali 1985 68). Allah (s. w. t) says By time, verily man is in loss, except such as have Faith, and do righteous deeds, and (join together) in the mutual enjoining of truth, and of patience and constancy. (Qur? an 103 1- 3). Islamic leadership has princely characteristics that distinguish it from other models of leaderships.In his second book Management and Administration in Islam, al-Buraey 14 (1990) allocated an entire chapter to the roots of Islamic leadership. He stated that, The most important characteristic of the leadership in Islam was the religious and moral spirit which dominated the entire field of government and leadership under Prophet Muhammad (p. b. u. h. ) and the four pious caliphs. (al-Buraey, 1990 233). He emphasized that the orientation and general philosophy of Islamic leadership centres on the concepts of piety, shura consultation, justice, equality, and social equity.Al-Ali (1985) on the other hand mentioned some characteristics of leadership in Islam, in addition to the effects of Qur? an and Sunnah on the development of leadership. He also mentioned some Qur? anic verses and sayings of the Prophet (p. b. u. h. ) to support the idea that we have the resources to Islamize anything. However, he did not relate these sayings to the Islamic system of leadership or administration. More recently, Beekun and Badawi (1999) in their book entitled Leadersh ip An Islamic Perspective, emphasized the importance of morals and good behavior in the Islamic leadership.They mentioned the four main bases of Islamic moral character that Muslim leaders should follow. These are Iman or faith, Islam, Taqwa or piety, and Ihsan (pp. 19- 25). They emphasized additional five key hallmarks of Islamic behavior. These are adl (justice), amanah (trust), birr (righteousness), mujahadah (struggle) and ahd (keeping a promise) (Ibid. 26- 33). The two authors touched briefly upon the roles of leadership from an Islamic perspective. They stated that a Muslim leader should be both a servant and a guardian for his or her followers (Ibid. 15).Finally, there were some attempts aimed at presenting the features of an Islamic theory of leadership. Abdul-Athim (1994) called for a theory in which values and morals are 15 the basis. He called this attempt as leadership by values?. Abu Sin also undertake the main features of an Islamic theory of leadership as follows 1. It is connected to the social philosophy of the Muslim society, its ethics and values. 2. It stresses the economic variable and material incentive, and works to action the needs of the individual. 3. It also gives consideration to the human and spiritual dimensions.It respects the individual as a human being and incorporates him in the administrative process, each according to his capabilities. 4. It should also give due attention to organizational diminution specification of responsibilities, respect for authority, official ties and the organizational structure (1986 188). Educational Leadership Roles in Islam Educational leadership in Islam has some unique roles as it is concerned with worldly matters as well as spiritual ones. A Muslim leader in any organization has all of these interests.As he strives for the success of the organization, he takes care regarding the satisfaction of Allah (s. w. t. ). Additionally, he or she has the responsibility of guiding people to the good for this life and for the Hereafter. This section will look at five roles of educational leadership in Islam. A. The Visionary Educational Leader A Muslim leader is a forward-looking person whose main concern is to achieve the vision of the planned future rather than just the daily objectives of the organization. He or she has a clear vision that guides him or her towards the achievement of the objectives by following the right way and method.The leader? s vision will clarify why one is here, how and what one is doing and what one will be doing in the future. Leaders have to transform this clear vision to the members of the organization. This will 16 enhance the organization and lead it to a high state whereby everybody is informed of what he or she is doing and towards what end. Allah (s. w. t) asked the Prophet (p. b. u. h. ) and his companions to be patient and not to clash with their oppressors because the final vision had yet to be reached. Allah (s. w. t) said in the Qur? n Hast thou not turned thy thought to those who were told to hold back their hands (from fight) but establish steady prayers and spend in regular Zakah (Qur? an 4 77). Prophet Muhammad (p. b. u. h. ) hence, kept planning for this final vision until it was achieved when the first Islamic state was established in Medina. It was clear thus that the Prophet (p. b. u. h. ) had a very clear vision from the beginning of his Prophethood. He refused several times to clash with Quraish tribes in Mecca during the first thirteen years of the new religion.His vision was clear that is building a new and unique Islamic state. Small clashes here and there will not help Muslims to achieve their final goal. Even when his companions were suffering, he only used to ask them to have patience. (Abdul-Wahhab 1997 106). Therefore, a visionary leader is required for any organization that is looking forward to achieving its future objectives. B. The Servant Educacational Leader Serving one? s people is on e of the main roles of a Muslim leader. Educational leadership in this context, is not a matter of perk or position. It is rather a huge responsibility.Educational leaders need therefore to feel that they are the servants of their followers in order to be able to fulfill their duties in the best way possible. This feeling will help leaders to make great efforts towards protecting the members of the organization and do whatever necessary to achieve its objectives. 17 The Prophet (p. b. u. h. ) said A ruler who has been entrusted with the affairs of the Muslims but makes no endeavor (for the material and moral upliftment) and is not sincerely concerned (for their welfare) will not enter Paradise along with them. (Muslim, n. d. Vol. 1, ch. 44, hadith No. 64, p. 82). Prophet Muhammad (p. b. u. h. ) said A commander (of the Muslims) is a shield for them. They fight behind him and they are protected by him (from tyrants and aggressors). If he enjoins fear of Allah (s. w. t), the Exalted and Glorious, and dispenses justice, there will be a (great) reward for him and if he enjoins otherwise, it rebounds on him. (Muslim, 1987, hadith No. 4542). The second caliph Umar Ibn al-Khattab (r. a. ) was quoted as telling his people I have appointed over you governors and agents not to beat your bodies or take your money, but rather to indoctrinate you and serve you. (Abdul-Hadi 1970 73 and al-Buraey 1985 248). It is clear therefore that a Muslim leader should reallyize that he or she is obliged to serve the members of the organization as part of serving the Muslim Ummah. C. The Educacational Leader as a Guide A Muslim educational leader is but a guide who is concerned about his followers? well being. His main concern is guiding them to what is good in the organization in life in general and in the Hereafter. He has to direct the followers towards understanding the vision of the organization and how they are going to achieve success in their duties in the best manner.He sho uld have such ability. In addition, the Muslim leader should have in mind that one of his duties is to direct people to be good Muslims besides being professional members. 18 About several of His prophets, Allah (s. w. t) said in the Qur? an And We made them leaders, guiding (men) by Our command, and We inspired them to do good deeds, to establish regular prayers and to give Zakah and they constantly served Us (and Us only). (Qur? an 21 73). To reiterate the idea, Allah (s. w. t) said in the Qur? n about the children of Israel And We appointed, from among them, leaders, giving guidance under Our command, so long as they persevered with patience and continued to have faith in Our signs. (Qur? an 32 24). The caliph Umar Ibn al-Khattab (r. a. ) reinforced the meaning of guiding? when he addressed the newly appointed governors and agents as follows Listen, verily I am not sending you as rulers and potentates rather, I am sending you as the leaders of guidance so that men may follow yo u. Render unto the Muslims their rights beat them not, lest you reduce them praise them not lest you make them undisciplined.Do not shut your doors against them, lest the strong among them devour the weak ones (Husaini 1958 83). It was clear for all Muslim leaders during the time of Umar (r. a. ) that they were just to guide their people and help them towards living in happiness. This role should be clear also for today? s Muslim leaders in order to understand the essence of educational leadership and be able to lead people towards success in this life and in the Hereafter. D. The Influential Educacational Leader A Muslim leader? s job is not only to serve and guide people but to bring about some changes for the betterment of their lives.Educational leadership in this context is connected with change from the wrong to the right. By influencing people, leaders will be able to transform their spirit, knowledge and experience to everybody in the 19 organization. However, this will not be achieved unless leaders are good models and examples for their followers. The Prophet (p. b. u. h. ) was very successful in influencing people and guiding them to the new religion beginning with his wife Khadija (r. a), his close companion Abu Bakr al-Siddiq (r. a) and all other companions (Abdul-Wahhab 1997 97).The caliph Abu Bakr (r. a) was then very influential in persuading Umar put in al-Khattab and other people regarding the importance of fighting those who refused to make the Zakah in order not to differentiate between all pillars of Islam (al-Sayouti 1994 87). This resulted in keeping the religion as pure as Prophet Muhammad (p. b. u. h. ) preached it to his people. Such examples are to be followed by all Muslim leaders who intend to encourage some positive changes in the lives of their followers. Leaders should realize that leading must come together with influencing. The leader? influential role can touch the hearts of the members of the organization and affect the ir behaviors. E. The Educative Leader A Muslim educational leader is concerned about the enhancement of the potentials and capabilities of all members. Thus educational leadership is concerned with the advancement of the members of the organization in a number of ways, especially spiritually, mentally, intellectually, psychologically, socially and professionally. A leader? s main mission is not only to ensure the job is done but also to develop and train people in order to be competent, efficient and independent.Educational leadership in Islam in this context will allow leaders to transfer their experiences to the members. As a result, the open people will be trained in one way or another to be the leaders of the future and the cycle will continue. 20 The Prophet (p. b. u. h. ) used to teach his companions in different ways, especially when somebody was given a position involving leadership. It has been reported that when Prophet Muhammad (p. b. u. h. ) appointed Ali Ibn Abi Talib (r. a. ) as a judge in Yemen, he was concerned that he had no experience in the field. Regarding this incident, Ali (r. . ) said the Prophet (p. b. u. h. ) sent me to Yemen as a judge. I said Oh Messenger of Allah I am a youth, how could you send me to a people who are far advanced in years than me. The Prophet prayed for me, and said ? If two adversaries approach you (for fair judgement) and you hear the claim of one, do not judge until you have heard from the other, for this is to decide the case(al-Baihaqi n. d. , Vol. 10, Kitab Adab alQadi, p. 86). It is clear here that Prophet Muhammad (p. b. u. h. ) had taught Ali (r. a. ) the main and most general rule to be practiced by a judge.Muslim leaders therefore, should follow such examples and train their followers how to do the assigned jobs. By doing this, members will be more confident in tackling their duties and as a result, they will be more professional in their concerned fields. Educacational Leadership Styles in Islam Educa tional leadership from an Islamic perspective has some unique styles which makes it different from other styles of educational leadership. They are based on the Islamic principles that guide and frame the theoretical perspective of educational leadership.Four educational leadership styles could be recognized brotherhood, collaborative, shuratic or consultative and supportive educational leadership styles. However, Muslim leaders can adapt more than one style as they relate to each other. Feelings of brotherhood within the organization will lead people to collaborate with each other and will help the leader to support his or her followers. On the other hand, applying the shura system in the decision making process will bring the leader and the 21 followers together as everybody feels loyal to the organization.This section will look at these four possible educational leadership styles in Islam. A. Brotherhood Educacational Leadership It is a style of educational leadership in which th e leader and all the organization? s members are considered as a family. Followers feel that they are but brothers and sisters of each other before having any kind of organizational structure or position. To have the real essence of brotherhood, leaders tend to feel that they are not better than any other person in the organization. They also tend to deal with others just now as they like to be dealt with.Having this feeling in an Islamic organization will make everybody feel as part of one family. Such an achievement will help to create a socially healthy environment for the excellence of the organization. It was reported that Abu Bakr al-Siddiq (r. a. ) has said when he was appointed as the Khalifa (leader) for the Muslims I am not a better person than any one of you, if I am right follow me and if I am wrong, correct me. (al-Sayouti 1994 84). Today? s leaders need such feelings that guide them to understand the essence of educational leadership that Muslim organizations need at this time.It is not a matter of having a rank or a position but rather it is a matter of feeling of equality and building good relationships with the members of the organization. The fifth Rashidi (rightly guided) caliph Umar Bin Abdul-Aziz also has been reported to have said that I am not a better person than any one of you, but I am just having more responsibilities than any one of you. (al-Sayouti 1994 276). Therefore, leaders 22 should feel they are responsible for creating an environment of brotherhood in their organizations in which members feel that they are close to each other.Such an environment will enhance the social relationships among everybody and motivate them for better achievements. B. Collaborative Educacational Leadership Working in harmony as a team is an inner feeling in most people.. Leaders should realize that they cannot work separately even if they are experts unless they cooperate with everybody in the organization. Leaders then believe that strengthening the relationships of the members will lead to success. Such strong relationships and cooperation will bring harmony to the organization, which will create a positive and healthy environment.To achieve that, leaders tend to have the members working in groups as much as possible. They tend also to have some social programs for all members. As a result, members in the same way will believe that they cannot achieve their objectives unless they put their hands together and work as one team. The Islamic model of educational leadership emphasizes co-operation rather than competition (al-Buraey, 1985 344). Allah (s. w. t. ) directed Muslims to help each other. He said help ye one another in righteousness and piety, but help ye not one another in sin and rancour. (Qur? an 5 2).This kind of help and cooperation will be considered as a system for Muslims in order to achieve success. Leaders therefore should help their followers to overcome their problems and facilitate whatever they need in order to carry out their duties in the best way possible. 23 C. Shuratic or Consultative Educacational Leadership Whatever experience the leader has, his or her decision will be according to one person? s opinion. He or she will probably feel the need for others? opinions and ideas before making any necessary decisions that might affect the members of the organization.Leaders therefore apply the shura (consultation) method in any way that allows them to listen to others and allow the members to express their ideas on certain important matters that concern the organization. Leaders then will tend to ask for feedback about any matter that concerns the school and the members. As a result, members will feel free to go to the leader and present any necessary suggestions or advice. Such an atmosphere will create a high level of trust and spirit among all members of the organization. Allah (s. w. t) said in the Qur? n about Muslims Those who respond to their Lord, and establish regular pra yer who (conduct) their affairs by mutual consultation who spend out of what We bestow on them for sustenance. (Qur? an 42 38). rough-cut consultation as Allah (s. w. t) declared, is a distinguishing Muslim trait, especially of leaders. What makes shura unique in the Islamic point of view is its consensus generating mechanism rather than majority or minority influence. (alBuraey, 1985 344). All decisions that have been agreed upon in any organization must be in accordance with the Islamic principles.Practicing shura (consultation) will help leaders to more involve the members of the organization in the decision making process. As a result, the members will be more motivated to do their job. They will feel a sense of belonging to the organization, as it is their own. They will also feel as having an important role to play and not only 24 implementing whatever they have been asked to do. Such an environment will boost the team spirit in the organization. D. Supportive Educacationa l Leadership Islamic educational leadership believes in supporting the members of the organization in their work. Leaders are trying to be on their members? ide. The organization? s members are always in need of their leaders? motivation and encouragement. They need the spiritual motivation before any other. They also need training programs that increase their knowledge and skills in different fields. Therefore, leaders in this style will take any given opportunity to motivate and encourage their followers in different ways and utilize different situations. Leaders believe in training and developing the members in necessary skills, and thus a continuous professional development program for the members is an absolute priority. In clarifying Prophet Muhammad? s (p. b. u. h. duty, Allah (s. w. t) said in the Qur? an It is He Who has sent amongst the unlettered, a messenger from among themselves, to rehearse to them His signs, to purify them, and to instruct them in the Book and wisdom, although they had been, before, in manifest error. (Qur? an 62 2). It is manifest here that the duty of the Prophet (p. b. u. h. ) as a leader was not only to make sure that everything proceeded smoothly but also to teach, educate and develop further people? s knowledge and skills. Muslim leaders should practice such duties that will help them to understand the essence of educational leadership and be good leaders.RECOMMENDATIONS This work was an attempt in studying the philosophy of educational leadership in Islam. It tried to cover part of it to some extent. Other part such as the objectives, 25 characteristics, fundamentas and principles of educational leadership in Islam and other topics need more investigations. The researchers, therefore, would suggests the following recommendations to enhance the status of Islamic educational leadership 1. Muslim scholars should make great efforts towards investigating the concepts of Islamic educational leadership. They have to do more i n-depth research on this topic.This will be of assistance in formulating a theory of educational leadership from the Islamic perspective which contributes to the existing knowledge and engage with it by means of accommodation or modification. 2. Several education ministries in Muslim nations, Muslim manager training institutions, Muslim leadership training institutions and authorities dealing with Muslim institutions should pay a great deal of attention towards understanding the concepts of Islamic leadership and educational leadership. As Muslims, they should emphasize more on realizing that every aspect in life including administration in all institutions must be in ccordance with Islam. 3. Courses on educational leadership in universities, colleges and managers training institutions should focuss more on incorporating Islamic concept of educational leadership. This will enable these institutions to produce sound, knowledgeable and skillful managers and administrators who are able to serve the Muslim Ummah. 4. Educational leaders, managers and other administrators should practice more clearly the Islamic way of leadership. They should consider their work for the sake of Allah as the highest level on their list of priorities.They should be competent and should possess good character (akhlaq) so that they can be role models for others especially the younger generation. 5. Educational leaders should make a great effort to create a sound and healthy environment for their organization. Such an environment will help accomplish the objectives of the institution. 26 6. Research centres and educational leadership institutions should organize more seminars, workshops and conferences in order to disseminate the concepts of educational leadership from an Islamic perspective. This will also help to consolidate and crystallize the Islamic theory of leadership. 7.Muslim scholars who are well-versed in Western educational leadership should increase their efforts in doing co mparative studies between the Islamic and Western philosophies of educational leadership. 8. The five educational leadership roles and four educational leadership styles from an Islamic perspective that have been study could be a guideline for selecting new leaders and managers for the Islamic organizations. 9. Further studies are to be conducted in the Islamic institutions in Muslim countries. 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The Spirit of Leadership Optimizing Creativity and Change in Organizations. USA Executive Excellence Publishing. 30
Sunday, May 26, 2019
If he has a conscience he will suffer for his mistake. That will be punishment-as tumesce as the prison. (Dostoyevsky 336). Guilt is commonly understood to be an emotion that results as an out bring of an evil act. However, is it always this simple? No human being with each sense has the ability to commit an atrocious crime without some feeling of guilt or remorse afterwards. Gradually, this guilt festers and eats away at one(a)s conscience until the point of escape, reached by confession, thus leading to salvation.Throughout Dostoyevskys Crime and Punishment the main character, Raskolnikov is stricken with guilt and suffering that last leads to his confession and redemption. In todays modern America, and Raskolnikovs 18th century Russia, guilt plays a pivotal role in transforming an individuals moral compass and influences ones actions. In the opening of the novel, Raskolnikov intellectualizes the crime by convincing himself that there are people in his world who are extraordin ary, and that he is above the law by being one.He believes he is one of the elite, who will be able to commit the murder and escape both physical and unrestrained punishment. Rodia believes that the murder can be justified because of the fact that Allionia is wicked, and purposeless. Raskolnikov does not feel guilt in the crime until he realizes that no good had come from the murder, and Lizoveta who was an innocent person, had died as well as Allionia, making Rodia feel dreadful for his actions. Guilt has had, and always will have a variety of influences on people, and in Crime and Punishment, Raskolnikov physically shows remorse in different situations.Raskolnikov is constantly paranoid and anxious which demonstrates his extreme shame, without him having to actually confess his guilt. For example, Raskolnikov was aware of a terrible throw out of kilter within himself. He was afraid he could not keep himself under control. (Dostoyevsky 91). As readers, we see his shame progress from before the murder, to when he bottles it all up to the point of explosion. Some would say that Sonia, not guilt, is the main contributor to Raskolnikovs confession, but she is actually the instrument that cured his guilt.Sonia was the main vehicle of good in society, so her influence upon Raskolnikov was what society would have preferred Rodia to do to confess. Sonia did urge Raskolnikov to come clean, for instance, at the end of the book Sonia told Rodia Go to the crossroads, bow down to the people, pamper the earth because you have sinned against it, too, and say aloud to the whole world I am a murderer Then God will send you flavor again. (Dostoyevsky 500). Although Sonia did advise him to profess his sins, Raskolnikovs confession comes from his inner yearning to get rid of the shame he is feeling inside.
Saturday, May 25, 2019
Loa Loa Afri rear end Eye worm pic pic Loa Loa By Amanda Green Microbiology 210 Loa Loa is a parasite known more commonly as the African Eye Worm. This may be one of the most feared of the parasites. They are classified as filarial worms, meaning they thrive in clement tissues. Before the 1920s , Loa Loa infections occurred more frequently in the United States now it is more commonly found in West Africa and equatorial Sudan. It prefers areas with hot, wet climates, the likes of swamps and rainforests. They are cylindrical and have a cuticle with three main outer layers.This protects the nematodes (larvae) so they can invade the digestive tracts of animals. The outer layers are non cellular. The bad Loa Loa is a thin small worms ranging in length from 20 70 mm long and 350 430 mm wide. Males are smaller than the females. Loa Loa was first described in 1770 by a French surgeon, Mongin. He was the first surgeon to try to remove a worm from the eye of a woman in Santa Domingo. He wa s unsuccessful. Another observation came form a French ships surgeon, who observed an eye worm in slaves being taken to the West Indies from Africa in 1778.The first person to identify the microfilaria of Loa Loa in 1890 was Dr. Patrick Mason when he was invited to examine blood belittles with Dr. Stephen Mackenzie. This person was thought to have sleeping sickness of the Congo. To reproduce the female produces a pheromone to displume males. After mating the female produces large numbers of active embryos called microfilaria. These microfilaria find their way to the blood stream where they can be transmitted through a bite to the next host. Loa Loa is an obligate endoparasite that feeds on fluids in the tissues of humans.The parasite contains pharyngeal glands and intestinal epithelium that produce digestive enzymes that enable them to feed on the hosts body fluids. Extracellular digestion begins within the lumen and is finished intracellularly. The adult parasite has been known to live up to 15 years. A human infected by Loa loa is termed Loiasis. People become infected by the transmission by deerflies. Once the deerfly lands on the host and bites, the larvae then drops into the opening of the skin and burrows into the subcutaneous tissues.The larvae then emigrate through the body, commonly to the eye. They congregate in the lungs at night. Damage can be make to the eyes as it crawls through the cornea and conjunctive tissues. It can tardily be seen and felt in the eye up to an hour. When they are deeper into the body they can cause encephalitis, if they reach the brain, which can lead to death. Joint pain can occur from puffiness if the parasite stays near a joint for a period of time. The larva can remain unnoticed for months or years in the beginning becoming an adult, mating, and producing offspring.They continuously travel through deep and connective tissues, often even without the person feeling any sensation other than occasional itching. A per son may feel the greatest discomfort when the worm slows or reaches a sensitive spot. It is then that the immune reaction starts, with localized redness and lubber called Calabar. This type of reaction is thought to be caused by a type of allergic reaction to dead worms and their byproducts. Skin eruptions and muscle pain may be evident. Once the worm dies the surrounding tissues may abscess. An accumulation of serous fluid in a sacculated cavity called hydrocele is a less common symptom. colonic lesions, fibroblastic endocarditis, membranous glomerulonephritis, retinopathy, arthritis, and peripheral neuropathy can occur but are less common in people native to endemic areas. To diagnose Loasis, physicians look for Calabar swelling and the presence of worms in the conjunctiva. Those are the main tests used to diagnose an infestation. Some laboratory tests can help with the diagnosing including, C reactive protein, elevated eosinophils (called eosinophilia), and immunoglobulin E qua ntification. Identification of microfilariae by microscopic examination is the most practical diagnostic test.The collection of the blood specimen is extremely important with the known periodicity of the microfilariae. The smear is stained with Giemsa or hematoxylin and eosin. Concentration techniques can be used for increased sensitivity, including centrifugation of the blood sample hemolyzed in 2% formalin. Checking for microfilaria in the blood on a newly suspected case is not recommended because it can take may years for them appear. Loa Loa is endemic only to parts of West Africa. A study done by S. Wanji at the University of Boea in Cameroon found that in 16 rural villages in southern Cameroon 2. 2% to 19. 23% of people were infected. It also showed that males are virtually twice as likely to become infested as females. The level of infection increases from the ages of 15 to 65 years old and then drops. The treatments situation effects for Loa Loa are more life-threatening t han the actual infestation. Two of the most common treatments are diethylcarbamazine and ivermectin. Both of these treatments can cause encephalitis, coma, or death in people with high microfilaria loads. These drugs kill the microfilaria but not the adult worms. Other treatments include chemotherapy and surgical removal.
Friday, May 24, 2019
billy goat Joel is a well known musician who has sold millions of albums throughout the world. Billy Joel has also won bigeminal grammys and several other awards. He has worked with many an(prenominal) other artists and is affectionately known as The Piano Man. Over the years, Billy Joel has disturbed many records including performing his 65th at Madison Square Garden.Today, he continues to succeed in his music career as he has over his many years as a musician. Billy Joel was born on May 9, 1949, as William Martin Joel in Bronx, New York. He grew up in Levittown, New York, and had devil siblings a sister named Judith, and a half-brother Alexander Joel. His father was a classical pianist, and his mother encouraged him to play the piano.He started his career at a very early stage in his life, when he began taking piano lessons at the age of four. His lessons continued until he was sixteen years old. He was in three bands before the age of sixteen. He decided to start his music ca reer after watching a famous band named The Beatles on the usual Ed Sullivan Show. In 1971 he came out with his first album after dropping out of high school to pursue his career in music. The unaccompanied album was called Cold Spring Harbor. Billy Joel accordingly decided to move to Los Angeles and got a job soon after as a lounge pianist. later on he performed in L.A. in his early years he chose to move back to Long Island.He still continues to pursue his music career nigh the world and currently lives in Long Island. Billy Joel married his first wife Elizabeth Weber Small in 1973. They had been partners for years before they married. In 1982 they divide from each other and both moved on. He then married famous supermodel named Christie Brinkley.They then had a daughter named Alexa Ray who was born on declination 29, 1985. He then split from Christie Brinkley in 1993 eight years after they had their daughter Alexa Ray. Billy Joel met and married television food star and jo urnalist Katie Lee. The both divorced after being married for six years. Billy Joel then went on to meet his current wife Alexis Roderick.They then married in 2015, and went on to have a baby named Della Rose who was born on August 12, 2015. Billy Joel sold over 150 million successful albums and has won multiple awards. Throughout his career his singles hit the top charts almost every time. Through the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s his singles hit the top 40 thirty-three times.He accredited a Grammy Legend Award in 1990 and a Billboard Century Award in 1994 for his outstanding music. The Johnny Mercer Award was awarded to Joel in 2001 for being inducted into the Songwriters abode of Fame in 1992. He was also awarded Musicares Person of the Year in 2002. Billy Joel received three Cable Excellence Awards for his American cable television programming. Joel was put forward for 10 Tony Awards and won one for Best Orchestrations.Later in Billy Joels career he suffered from an alcohol addict ion and was continuously in rehab. He then recovered going on to make more music throughout the early 2000s. Joel then released All My Life in 2007. The single was his first in thirteen years with original lyrics. Billy Joel performed multiple times at Madison Square Garden and broke records, selling out his concerts constantly. He do $46 million in sales as of October, 2015.Billy Joel is one of the best selling artists of all time, topping the charts numbers of time throughout the years. He has won several awards and sold out many shows at popular venues such as Madison Square Garden. Billy Joel has continued to perform and turning throughout the world today as the same wonderful musician he was years ago.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
Introduction The continuous deterioration of the look of commandment in the Philippines has prompted the DepEd to push for the implementation of the K to 12 political platforms, which entails the institutionalization of kindergarten and the addition of twain more courses of high prep be in the croupeonical pedagogy cycle. The proposal has spurred a heated debate on whether it could lead to improvements or just exacerbate thn e present state of education in the country. The Enhanced K+12 Basic Education Program in the Philippines has been officially started.It has been initiated by the Aquino administration where students go forth have to undergo a new system of education. This program ordain get hold of all incoming students to enroll into two more years of radical education. Thus, the K+12 System will basically include the comprehensive kindergarten, 6 years of elementary, 4 years of junior high school with an additional 2 years for senior high school. moreover, the p rogram aims to uplift the quality of education in the Philippines in order for graduates to be easily employed.The program excessively aims to meet the standards involved for professionals who would want to counterfeit abroad. Most importantly, the system aims to fully enhance and burst the students in order for them to be advantageously-prep bed especially in emotional and cognitive aspects. Through this, graduates will be able to face the pressures of their upcoming live onplace. However, non all ar in favor of the K+12 Education. in that respect argon students complaining of the additional years and there atomic make sense 18 p arents who are not in favor of the additional expenses.But indeed, it is an undeniable fact that additional years in the education system will really require more budgets not just from the government but from the parents as well. Aside from this, students will exact additional classrooms, school supplies and facilities. The program would nee d more pendant teachers as well. The researchers believe that the K+12 Education in the Philippines would uplift the quality of lifestyle of the Filipino people.But, this could not be d cardinal without world prepared. And since the program has already been implemented, what ismore important now is for students to do their best and study despite of the lack of facilities. The Philippine educational system pursues the achievement of excellent undergraduates in the elementary and secondary level. Implementation of UbD is one of the proposals that undertook in the country recently. At present, the Department of Education pronounces the addition of two more years in the basic education of students, which according to them will benefit not only the Filipino youth but all the Filipinos in the Philippines.This proposal is part of P-noys educational Reform Program. The administration asserts that with the implementation of such program, the caper of unemployment in the country will be re solved. In as much as employment in the Philippines is reverenceed, the K12 education also responds to the fact that most countries in the world already have the same plan in their educational institutions. With this, the standards of these countries go a qualifying higher than what the country has, thus, creating an expansion in the global competency.What can be really said slightly this plan? While the reaction of the public is divided, where some(a) are in favor and some are not, here are several issues that point out to the aggression of opposing groups especially the parents to this program. One of the main(prenominal) problems in the Philippines which the government needs to resolve is the lack of school and classrooms in the contrary parts of the country. It is important that students stay in a place that is contributive for study while they are away from home.In addition, with teachers go abroad to teach, or do an otherwise job, there is already a shortage of educators in schools that mold the minds of learners. And this deficiency has be nonplus a problem for the country in the past several years. Finally, there is a need for students to utilize the appropriate instructional materials and school equipment for them to learn and gain the necessary noesis in school. This lack of accessibility in books and other school supplies clearly manifest the scarcity in the public schools in the country.There is nothing wrong in aiming the other fraction of a horizon, and that is what the government attempts to accomplish. It is in fact an indication that to aspire for something higher, one must carry out certain actions to achieve the goal. However, the administration also ought to realize and clearly understand what the educational system in the Philippines needs to turn primarily. The mentioned issues above are only a few elements that entailed to be resolved. At some point, the Philippines cannot go ahead unless the concerns are faced and the difficulti es are completely solved.There are a lot to be done to improve the competency of the youth. The government does not need to gaze from afar. ? Conceptual Framework The framework of this as can be viewed be little was anchored on the dependent variable, students perception on the K+12 polity as the independent variable. explore Paradigm Fig. 1 Dependent Variable Independent Variable Statement of the Problem Major Problem 1. What is the perception of the STMA high school students on K12? barbarian Problems 1. What are the advantages and damages of K12? 2.Does the student agree on the K12 policy? ? Hypothesis This study assumed the following 1. That students have different definition about the K12 policy. 2. That students believe that K12 is a waste of time. 3. Most students will not finish high school. Scope and Delimitations The target respondents of the study are the high school students of the current faculty member year (2011-2012) promiscuously selected across all year leve l. It is limits itself on the perceptions of the students on the said topic and their preconceived notion. Significance of the Study.This study is about the perception on K12 policy among parents and high school students of St. Thomas More Academy academic year 2011-2012. The persons that would benefit from the study are the following Students A better understanding on K12 policy would benefit the students on increasing their knowledge. Teachers The finding of this study may likewise motivate and challenge them to guide their students on matters regarding K12 policy related issues considering the school of thought of loco parentis or the second parents teachers will be able to explain things.Parents will be enlightened on how best to explain to their children matters pertaining to K12 policy. ? Definition of damage The following special terms has been sued to suit this study Deteriorate To make or become worse in character, quality, and so forth Exacerbate To increase the severity, bitterness, or violence of aggravate. PerceptionPoint of view Opinion Promptto obey ENDNOTES Websites www. wikipedia. com www. wiki-answers. com http//wiki. answers. com/Q/What_are_the_advantages_in_having_k_plus_12? CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ? CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE.In preparing this study the researchers seriously looked for different books, newspapers articles and other media as point of reference. There are numerous sources that the researchers found especially on the internet related to these. The researchers carefully examined the following related literary productions If the K-12 Education Plan becomes successful, then the Philippine education system can become more competitive among other countries around the world. Though there are still some problems that the government needs to solve before they can successfully implement the plan.The proposed program is good but it still wont work if the needed elements to make it work arent present. Such element includes the number of public school classrooms plus the adequate supply of classroom chairs, books, etc. If the government could allot a bigger budget to educational needs, then we could be one-step ahead towards the success of the K-12 program. Furthermore, parents (especially those who belong in the poor sector) should be properly informed and motivated of the advantages of the K-12 Education Plan.This is really important since parents play a major role in providing the childs school allowances, supplies, and fees for other school projects and activities. Add to that the support of parents towards their children in terms of guidance and teaching. The DepEd seems all set to add two more years to the countrys 10 year basic education plan. This is a very tough issue to crack. We think it is a clash between reality and the ideal. A question unanswered is this for the common good? The truth is there are already many problems at the current 10-year curriculum and it has no thing to do with number of years.To enumerate a few there are not enough qualified teachers to teach all the students that is made worst with just too many students there are not enough classrooms and schools to comfortably fit all the students (not to mention not enough bathrooms and water supply) there are not enough books add the problem of poor quality books, on top of that there are not enough facilities and finally very high dropout rates. The latter, high dropout rates are being caused by something out of the education system but affects large part of the population poverty.There are just so many poor families and they are so poor that many of them cannot afford to pay for the already meager amount needed for the education of their children. Grade school and high school are free in public schools with parents needing to just pass away on uniforms, fare and some expenses. The tuition which normally accounts for a very large share of the perfect expenses are free and yet mo st poor families can still not afford of what is left for them to spend. It is not that the expenses are high, its just their income is very, very low.It is this inability to afford the other expenses that has caused a very high dropout rate among students. This plan of the DepEd to add two more years will of course not solve any of the above problems. In fact, it will only extend all those problems by two more years. A longer basic education will also mean even higher dropout rates. Then there is the problem of additional expenses for the government. As of now, with the 10 year curriculum, there is already awful lack of classrooms and schools. The public schools cannot turn the students away when they show up to enroll.To cope many public schools have crammed as many students as they can inside the classroom with classrooms crammed with chairs from wall to wall. Not enough, the schools conduct classes in at least shifts, in some instances classes held very early in the sunup till late in the evening. With two additional years, the schools will definitely need to construct new buildings and classrooms or God forbid conduct classes 24/7. The above is the reality part. On the government side, in the discussion paper it disseminated during its press conference last Oct.5, the Department of Education (DepEd) has given at least nine reasons for the K+12 project 1. Enhancing the quality of basic education in the Philippines is urgent and critical. 2. The poor quality of basic education is reflected in the low achievement scores of Filipino students. One reason is that students do not get adequate instructional time or time on task. 3. supranational test results consistently show Filipino students lagging way behind practically everybody else in the world.In the 2008 mathematics exam, for example, we came in dead last. 4. The congested curriculum partly explains the present state of education. Twelve years of content are crammed into ten years. 5. This quality of education is reflected in the inadequate preparation of high school graduates for the world of work or entrepreneurship or higher education. If ten years were adequate, how come employers do not ingest fresh high school graduates? How come most high school graduates flunk the UPCAT? 6. Most graduates are too young to enter the labor force. Since most children start Grade 1 when they are 6 years old, they do not reach the legal employable age of 18 when they graduate from high school today. 7. The current system also reinforces the misperception that basic education is just a preparatory step for higher education. Why prioritize the minority of high school graduates that go to college? 8. The short time of the basic education program also puts the millions of overseas Filipino workers (OFWs), especially the professionals, and those who intend to study abroad, at a disadvantage.Our graduates are not automatically acknowledge as professionals abroad. The best examples are our engineering graduates, who are condemned to international jobs not befitting their professional status due to our not having a 12-year basic education cycle. 9. The short basic education program affects the human ontogeny of the Filipino children. If we believe that 17-year-old high school graduates are emotionally, psychologically, and intellectually mature, why do we require them to get parental consent before they get married? On the other hand, those opposing the plan put forward the following arguments1. Parents have to character out more money (for transportation and food) for the education of their children. 2. The government does not have the money to pay for two more years of free education, since it does not even have the money to fully support todays ten years. DepEd must first solve the lack of classrooms, furniture and equipment, qualified teachers, and error-free textbooks. 3. We can do in ten years what everyone else in the world takes 12 years to do. Why do we hav e to follow what the rest of the world is doing? We are better than all of them.Filipinos right now are accepted in prestigious graduate schools in the world, even with only ten years of basic education. 4. As far as the curriculum is concerned, DepEd should fix the current subjects instead of adding new ones. The problem is the content, not the length, of basic education. As an editorial put it, we need to have better education, not more education. 5. A high school diploma will not get anybody anywhere, because business firms will not hire fresh high school graduates. 6. Every family dreams of having a child graduate from college.7. While students are stuck in Grades 11 and 12, colleges and universities will have no freshmen for two years. This will spell financial disaster for many private Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). 8. The drop-out rate will increase because of the two extra years. ? . CHAPTER III methodological analysis ? Chapter III systemology This chapter deals wit h the methodology of the studies. This is presented on the following sections (a) Research design (b) Sampling Technique (c) Instrumentation (d) Data-gathering procedure and (e) Statistical treatment of data.Research Method The descriptive survey method was man used in this research. The descriptive method is concerned with the analysis of the relationship between non-manipulated variable employing the use of the development of generalization. This means that variable have already occurred and are just selected and observed Fraenkel and Wallen (1998) also define the descriptive research as involving collection of data in order to test hypothesis and answer questions concerning the current status of the subject of the study.Since the study deals with perceptions of parents and high school students on K12 policy of the Philippine government academic year 2011-2012, the descriptive survey method was deemed appropriate to be used. Sampling Technique The population of the study involved a total number if 496 respondents randomly selected representing at least more than half(a) of the schools population irrespective of the age, year, selection and gender. Research Instrument The researchers devised a self-made questionnaire designed to adjudge information related on the objective of the study.It consisted of the following parts Part I This part of the questionnaire dealt with personal information regarding the respondents (name and section). Part II This part of the questionnaire was think to ask the respondents definition about K+12. Part III This part of the questionnaire was intended to ask the respondents idea about the advantages and disadvantages of K12. Part IV- This part of the questionnaire was intended to ask the respondents opinion about the benefits of K+12. Data Gathering Procedures.The following data gathering procedures channelize the researchers Phase 1 a copy of the questionnaire was presented to the thesis adviser. The researchers asked fo r his comments and suggestions Phase 2 the researchers presented the edited questionnaire and asked for further assistance from parents. It was then presented for approval to the school principal who gave priceless insight and ideas on how best the data can be gathered. Phase 3 the researchers conducted data gathering procedures during first week of February. The figure below is the flow diagram of the Data Gathering Procedures done by the researchers.Fig. 2 Statistical Treatment of Data For analyzing the data, the researchers will be use of the following statistical tools Percentage This refers to the number of parts per one hundred. It is a statistical tool used to express how large one quantity is, relative to another quantity. To get the total persona of specific number and total number respondents in the questionnaire the formula is % = F/N * 100 Where N=370 Unless otherwise stated the above formula will be used except for multiresponse questions or for gender based questio ns. ?Presentation and Data Analysis Table 1 1. How do you define K12? This table is a multi-response item which showed that mass of respondents surveyed that they defined K12 as an added two years in high school with 77. 57% followed by it is an academic program with 20. 54% and a government policy with 15. 41%. ? Table 2 2. What are the advantages of it? The preceding multiresponse table2 showed that majority of respondents surveyed said that the advantage of K12 policy is to gain more knowledge with 62. 97% followed by more chances to have work with 29.19% and free OJT with 18. 65%. ? Table 3 3. What are the disadvantages of it? Multiresponse table 3 showed that more money to spend was the top disadvantage of K12 with 79. 19% followed by waste of time with 16. 22% and lack of leisure with 15. 41% as the final point of view. ? Table 4 4. Do you agree on K12 policy? More than half of the respondents said that they disagreed on the K12 policy with 67. 57% and the remaining 32. 43% o f the respondents agreed. ? Table 5 5. Do you think you will be well educated if you graduated under the K12 system?Table 5 showed that the majority of the respondents agreed that they will be well educated if they graduated under the K12 policy with 70. 27% and the other respondents left disagreed with 29. 73%. ? Table 6 6. In K12 system, do you think it will be adjuvant to all students? The greater part of the respondents believed that K12 policy will be helpful to the students. ? CHAPTER IV SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ? CHAPTER IV Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations This chapter presents the summary of findings, conclusions and recommendations. Summary of Findings.This first table is a multiresponse item which showed that majority of respondents surveyed that they defined K12 as an added two years in high school with 77. 57% followed by it is an academic program with 20. 54% and a government policy with 15. 41%. The second table is also a multiresponse item whi ch showed that majority of respondents surveyed said that the advantage of K12 policy is to gain more knowledge with 62. 97% followed by more chances to have work with 29. 19% and free OJT with 18. 65%. Multiresponse table 3 showed that more money to spend was the top disadvantage of K12 with 79.19% followed by waste of time with 16. 22% and lack of leisure with 15. 41% as the final point of view. Table 4 illustrates that more than half of the respondents said that they disagreed on the K12 policy with 67. 57% and the remaining 32. 43% of the respondents agreed. With this, it showed that the most of the students doesnt like to implement the K+12 policy due to their concern for their time and to their parents money.. Table 5 proved that the majority of the respondents agreed that they will be well educated if they graduated under the K12 policy with 70.27% and the other respondents left disagreed with 29. 73%. In table 6, it shows that the greater part of the respondents believed tha t K12 policy will be helpful to the students. Conclusions It has proved that the respondents showed their different views or perceptions on the K-12 system of education in the Philippine government. The following conclusions have been drawn 1. That students were all informed and yet educated what the K-12 system is about. 2. That disadvantages were showed by the majority of the students through the data gathered whereas it resulted the students not to agree on the said system. 3.That students will be well educated after finishing the K-12 system in their education. 4. And on the other side it will be a great help to the students to learn more and adequate information that will mold them into a better person. ? Recommendation It is with fervent wish of the researchers that the following recommendations be considered by the concerned Students 1. Responsible is the key to the effectiveness of this program. 2. Should be responsible enough to carry through the given task of their teache rs. Teachers 1. Teachers should encourage their students to open up if they have their problems on their subjects.2. Since teachers are willing to help the students be more cooperative and open-minded to develop their skills and studies. Schools 1. Schools should provide clean and green surroundings. 3. Monitor the students in having gangs/fraternities. 4. They should provide and recuperate their facilities. Parents 1. Parents should help their children in their problems. 2. Parents should encourage their children to keep not neglect their studies. ? St. Thomas More Academy Incorporated Molino III, Bacoor, Cavite Survey questionnaire Title Perception of STMA High School Students on the K12 policy of thePhilippine Government Name Year and Section 1. How do you define K12? a. added two years in high school b. academic program c. government policy 2. What are the advantages of it? a. free OJT b. more chances to have work c. gain more knowledge 3. What are the disadvantages of it? a. wa ste of time b. more money to spend c. lack of leisure 4. Do you agree on K12? a. no b. yes 5. Do you think you will be well educated if you graduated under the K12 system? a. yes b. no 6. In K12 system, do you think it will be helpful to all students? a. yes b. no.Title Perception of STMA High School Students on the K12 policy of the Philippine Government Name Year and Section 1. How do you define K12? a. added two years in high school b. academic program c. government policy 2. What are the advantages of it? a. free OJT b. more chances to have work c. gain more knowledge 3. What are the disadvantages of it? a. waste of tim b. more money to spend c. lack of leisure 4. Do you agree on K12? a. no b. yes 5. Do you think you will be well educated if you graduated under the K12 system? a. yes b. no 6. In K12 system, do you think it will be helpful to all students? a. yes b. no.