Wednesday, March 27, 2019
The Republic by Plato Essay -- essays research papers
The Republic by PlatoAt the beginning of Book I, we are introduced to the narrator, Socrates, and his audience of peers. We are do aware, however, of Socrates special charm and intellectual gifts through the insistence of Polemarchus and the a nonher(prenominal) manpower for the pleasure of his comp whatever. The tone is casual and langu years and modes of expression rather simple, as is comm just now the case in Platos dialogues. However, Platos unaffected style serves at least two purposes. For one it belies the complexity and elevation of the ideas, thus it is in parcel out with Socrates characteristic irony itself, which draws the "fool" in by feigned ignorance, only so that the master can show that he does not bonk what he thinks he knows. And second, the plainness of style comple handsts truth and wisdom, the aim of entirely the dialogues, which by nature are aphoristic. In Socrates conversation with Cephalus, the proper start to aging and the state of old age is addressed. Although other men Cephalus age commonly complain that for them, "life is no longer life," Cephalus feels that they misattribute discomfort and unhappiness resulting from their defective characters to advanced age. Building on a statement by Sophocles, Cephalus concludes, "he who is of a calm and happy nature will only feel the pressure of age." Socrates inquiry as to whether Cephalus happiness owes to the comfort of wealth demands a qualification of this position? That while a mans nature in the end determines his peace of mind in old age wealth is overly an undeniably important factor. The passage concerning justice illustrates Socrates dexterous intellect and his give chase skepticism. Playful and humorous at times, the conversation ends, at several points, in absurd--and apparently inexorable--conclusions such as that the just man is a thief. What is at work here is another type of irony, in which Socrates and his auditors accept as a temporary r esolution what the dialogues audience, i.e. the reader, cannot. Here, Plato grants the reader space to think for himself. A central problem with Polemarchus definition (borrowed from Simonides) a form of conventional theology of justice, "doing good to your friends and harm to your enemies," is the vulnerability of its individual terms. Not surprisingly, Socrates probes each one, exposing any and all weaknesses or limitatio... ...es itself on the wisdom. The nouss of the wicked are a much complicated issue, for, insofar as they are immortal, evil cannot destroy them. However, Plato warns, thither are various manifest parts to the soul, and evil-doing damages these. And unjust men also injure their own bodies and the bodies of others. In any case the futurity is what is most important there the good soul enjoys the benefits it may or may not have experienced in life. The moral of the story of Er, if we may drain it of its color, is that of the eternal return, or recurre nce. After death the soul is ultimately judged. This judgment determines the owner of the souls order of choice in split up for the next life. Then, whatever wisdom he has accumulated previously helps him light upon his choice when his lot comes up. Both moments are essential because they represent choices among good and evil. One is an ongoing choice, alive in mortal life, and the other is the ultimate choice the sum of what the soul has learned in life. valet is responsible for his own behavior, says Plato. And the final twist is that, it seems, the wise man does not really forget, since if he is truly wise he will distinguish yet another wise existence.